UNITED STATES (OBSERVATORY NEWS) — Former Egyptian President Mohammed Hosni Sayyid Mubarak (Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak) was born on May 4, 1928 in the small village of Kafr al-Musaha (province of Manufiya).
In 1949 he graduated with honors from the Military Academy in Cairo, in 1952 – from the Air Force Academy in Bilbeis, in 1964-1965 he received a military education at the Academy named after Frunze (USSR).
Hosni Mubarak served in fighter and bomber aircraft, then was an instructor at the Air Force Academy, took part in hostilities during the Suez Crisis in 1956.
He repeatedly traveled to the USSR, where he mastered the Il-28 bomber and the Tu-16 heavy bomber at the Kant airbase (Kyrgyzstan), which the USSR supplied to Egypt.
In 1959 he was appointed commander of the TU-16 bombers. A few years later became the commander of the brigade.
In 1962-1963 he participated in the civil war in Yemen, as part of the Egyptian contingent, commanded a bomber squadron.
In 1966-1969 he was the head of the Egyptian Air Force Academy. He took part in the Arab-Israeli war of 1967.
Since 1969 – General of Aviation and Chief of Staff of the Egyptian Air Force.
Since 1972 – Air Force Commander and at the same time Deputy Minister of Defense. He participated in the Arab-Israeli war of 1973.
As a result of the operation, Mubarak received the title of Chief Marshal of Aviation, and in 1974 – the title of Lieutenant General of the Armed Forces of Egypt.
In April 1975, he took over as vice president of Egypt and took an active part in most of the negotiations regarding Middle East and Arab politics.
After the creation of the National Democratic Party (NDP) by the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat, in Egypt, Mubarak was appointed its vice chairman. In 1980, he took over as its general secretary, and since January 1982, he became party chairman.
In October 1981, after a referendum held after the assassination of Anwar Sadat, Hosni Mubarak was elected President of Egypt.
Hosni Mubarak was at the head of the country for almost 30 years. Three times (in 1987, 1993 and 1999), referenda extended his authority for six years.
In 2005, the first in the history of the country alternative elections of the President of Egypt took place, at which he by a wide margin ahead of all his competitors.
Mubarak himself initiated amendments to the constitution introducing alternative elections instead of a nationwide referendum on a candidate selected by parliament.
In February 2011, against the backdrop of mass demonstrations, one of the main requirements of which was Mubarak’s departure from power, he resigned.
According to supporters of Hosni Mubarak, Egypt in the last years of its presidency was experiencing the most important stage of economic political and social reforms that were carried out smoothly and consistently, without side effects.
According to official figures, over the five years from 2005 to 2010, as part of the implementation of the Mubarak election program, 4.3 million jobs were created, 169 hospitals and 2.3 thousand schools, 300 thousand units of housing, including social, were built.
Economic growth in 2009-2010 amounted to 5.3%. According to this indicator, Egypt was included in the list of the 30 fastest growing countries in the world.
For their part, opponents of Mubarak note that the figures for economic growth were not reflected in the daily life of Egypt. The reason for this is corruption, which accompanied the liberalization of the economy.
Since April 13, 2011, Hosni Mubarak has been under arrest . Several criminal cases were instituted against him.
On June 2, 2012, a Cairo criminal court sentenced him to life imprisonment. The court found him involved in the deaths of civilians in the 2011 riots.
In January 2013, the Egyptian Criminal Court upheld the appeal of the ex-president’s lawyers for a sentence.
In November 2014, a court in Cairo dropped charges against Mubarak and his two sons in the death of protesters during the 2011 revolution. Mubarak has also dropped charges in a number of corruption cases.
In May 2014, Mubarak was found guilty of embezzlement of state funds intended for the reconstruction of the presidential palace. He was sentenced to three years in prison.
In January 2015, the Court of Cassation of Egypt decided to reverse the sentence, as well as to appoint a new trial in the case of embezzlement of budget funds.
On May 9, 2015, a court in Cairo sentenced Hosni Mubarak to three years in a maximum security prison for crimes related to corruption.
In June 2015, the Cassation Court of Egypt upheld the complaint of the prosecutor general’s verdict of acquittal in the case of Mubarak’s involvement in the killing of demonstrators during the January 2011 riots and ordered a review of the case.
On March 2, 2017, the Court of Cassation of Egypt issued a final acquittal against Hosni Mubarak.
Later it became known that the Prosecutor General of Egypt agreed to release Mubarak from custody. On March 24, 2017, he left a military hospital in the Cairo district of Maadi and returned home after six years in custody.
After his release, the ex-president lived with his family in his villa in the Cairo region of Heliopolis.
February 25, 2020 it became known about the death of Hosni Mubarak. He died after a long illness.
This article is written and prepared by our foreign editors writing for OBSERVATORY NEWS from different countries around the world – material edited and published by OBSERVATORY staff in our newsroom.
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