UNITED STATES (OBSERVATORY NEWS) — Hosni Mubarak, who died on Tuesday at the age of 91, has been undisputed for the throne of Egypt for thirty years before being overthrown by a popular revolution angry at the excesses of his security apparatus and the dreams of his son Gamal in inheriting the ruling.
On February 11, 2011, Hosni Mubarak was forced to relinquish power and hand it over to the army, which decided to align with the uprisings in Tahrir Square and at the same time dispose of the former general and his son Gamal’s political ambitions.
The last decade of Hosni Mubarak’s life witnessed major fluctuations that transformed him from a dictator who ruled the country for three decades thanks to an absolute security apparatus, to the first Egyptian president to appear before a court, before he became a former president out of the limelight.
The trial of Mubarak, who was commander of the Egyptian Air Force during the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, began seven months after his fall, accusing him of complicity in killing more than 800 protesters who fell during the revolution against his 18-day rule.
He was sentenced in June 2012 to life imprisonment (25 years).
However, the Egyptian Court of Cassation, the highest body in the Egyptian criminal judiciary, acquitted Mubarak on March 2, 2017, of this charge and he was released.
But the former president and his two sons Alaa and Jamal were convicted in 2016 of financial corruption.
Mubarak’s relations with his two sons and businessmen have been the subject of great doubts and questions throughout the last decade of his rule, and the Egyptian opposition has said that his regime is based on a “marriage of power and wealth.”
From the Shadow Man to the Power Man
And he opened the door for Mubarak to take over the presidency after the assassination of former President Anwar Sadat by Islamists in 1981 when he was vice president, at a time when no one expected a great future for this man who lacks charisma.
Those close to him said that his greatest wish was to appoint an ambassador to Egypt in London after he retired from his military post.
Mubarak was known to be a pragmatic man, but he gradually lost his connection with the people, became stubborn and arrogant, and relied on a fearful security apparatus.
Over the years of his rule, he succeeded in presenting Egypt as a pillar of stability in the region and a major mediator in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.
In spite of all the protests and protests, he adhered to the peace treaty that his predecessor concluded with Israel in 1979 and was keen to remain within what was known before the Arab Spring as a camp of moderation in the Arab world.
With his dyed black hair and his often hidden mask behind black glasses, Mubarak remained a familiar face in international meetings over the years of his rule.
Despite his strong response to extremist Islamic groups, Mubarak has been unable to stop the rise of political Islam embodied by the Muslim Brotherhood.
Muhammad Hosni Mubarak was born on the fourth of May 1928 in a middle-class family in the Egyptian Delta. He ascended the rank of military ranks in the army until he became Commander of the Air Force and then Vice-President in April 1975.
During his long career, he was subjected to six assassination attempts that made him refuse to lift a state of emergency in the country during his assumption of power.
The rise of his younger star, Gamal, who is close to businessmen, fueled doubts about the process of “succession” to rule. Gamal Mubarak’s political ambitions were the last nail in the coffin of his regime.
This article is written and prepared by our foreign editors writing for OBSERVATORY NEWS from different countries around the world – material edited and published by OBSERVATORY staff in our newsroom.
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