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How US imposed sanctions against Russia on the basis of non-proliferation laws

UNITED STATES (OBSERVATORY NEWS) — On February 13, 2020, the US State Department announced the inclusion of three Russian companies on the sanctions list. The sanctions included the Kumertau Aviation Production Enterprise, the military-industrial corporations Scientific and Production Association of Mechanical Engineering and the Instrument Design Bureau. According to Washington, they violate US legislation on the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against Iran, North Korea and Syria. What exactly are the claims against the three organizations is not specified. The sanctions took effect on February 3.

TASS has prepared material on US non-proliferation law and its application to Russian companies and organizations since 2010.

Sanctions mechanism

Nonproliferation laws provide for the termination of business cooperation between the US government and private American companies with organizations and third-country companies that supply equipment and technologies to Iran, North Korea and Syria that can be used to create WMD, cruise or ballistic missiles and are subject to the restriction of international control regimes (Missile Technology Control Regime, Australian Group Modes, Chemical Weapons Convention, Nuclear Suppliers Group, Wassenaar Sky arrangements). The ban applies to contractual agreements, trade in military goods, as well as the issuance of licenses for their export.

The sanctions process is a complex system of laws, Congressional amendments, and executive presidential decrees. The execution of sanctions is entrusted to the State Department, the ministries of finance and trade. As a rule, restrictions are introduced after the publication of the sanctions list by the federal register of the Federal Register for one to two years (sanctions under executive orders do not have a specific validity period).

About 1 thousand foreign companies, including Russian ones, came under restrictive measures in connection with non-proliferation. Russia rejects attempts of extraterritorial application of its domestic legislation by the United States.

Sanctions against Russian companies since 2010

In December 2014, three Russian defense industry enterprises were included in the sanctions list: Instrument Design Bureau in Tula, NPO Mashinostroyeniya Corporation in Reutov, Moscow Region, and MiG Aircraft Corporation in Moscow (in addition, the legal entity Geroi Rossii is included in the list; this does not appear in the Russian registry of legal entities.) Sanctions against them were extended in September 2015.

In September 2015, the Novosibirsk-based manufacturer of night-vision devices and electron-optical converters Katod and Rosoboronexport were sanctioned (Rosoboronexport contracts for the maintenance of Mi-17 helicopters in Afghanistan were withdrawn from the sanctions on November 24, 2015 ) They are suspected of violating the non-proliferation law against Iran and Syria.

On July 1, 2016, the Kuntsevo Design Bureau in Moscow, the 150th Aviation Repair Plant in Kaliningrad (as part of the Russian Helicopters holding), and the Engineering Design Bureau in Kolomna were included in the list. The validity of measures in relation to Rosoboronexport, the Instrument Design Bureau in Tula, and NPO Mashinostroyenia Corporation in Reutov was extended. All of them, according to the US Department of State, violated the American non-proliferation law against Iran and Syria.

On March 21, 2017, sanctions were extended to eight Russian companies (announced on March 24). For the first time, the Aviaexport association, the Basalt State Research and Production Enterprise, the Ulyanovsk Civil Aviation Institute named after Chief Marshal Bugaev, the Ural Civil Aviation Training Center, and the Zhukovsky and Gagarin Air Force Academy were blacklisted. With respect to Rosoboronexport, the Engineering Design Bureau in Kolomna and the 150th Aviation Repair Plant in Kaliningrad, the sanctions were extended.

On June 1, 2017, the United States imposed sanctions against three Russian companies in connection with the DPRK nuclear program. The restrictions included the Independent Oil and Gas Company (NOC), its subsidiary NNK-Resursnefteprodukt, and Ardis-Bearings LLC, registered in Moscow.

On May 8, 2018, the U.S. government decided to introduce restrictions on a number of Russian structures, incriminating them with violations of U.S. national legislation on the non-proliferation of WMDs. The blacklist, in particular, included the Training Center for Anti-aircraft Missile Forces in Gatchina, the 18th Central Scientific Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in Kursk, the Instrument Design Bureau in Tula, the 183rd Guards Anti-aircraft Missile Regiment, and the Research and Production Concern BARL “, General Directorate of the General Staff and joint-stock company Rosoboronexport.

On May 21, 2019, the Tula Instrument Design Bureau, MMZ Avangard and the anti-aircraft missile training center in Gatchina were included in the sanctions list.

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