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Syrian War: Who is fighting who? And why?

SYRIA (OBSERVATORY) –┬áThe conflict in Syria began more than seven years ago and the situation is worsening day by day.

The civil war has become a global conflict on Syrian territory. What are the causes of war? What are the parties to the conflict? What are their motives?

The cause of the war

From the outset, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad sought to remain in power despite his denials, while the West accuses him of war crimes of indiscriminate bombing of chemical weapons.

From the outset, Assad’s goal was to eliminate the opposition, which he described as “terrorist groups.”

The opposition began fighting in the wake of the repression of peaceful demonstrations in 2011 and initially included dissident gunmen and civilians, many of whom were killed in the fighting.

The armed opposition is currently composed of armed Islamist militant groups.

There are also Kurds who have taken control of large areas after the withdrawal of government forces from several areas after the start of the war. The Kurds say their goal of fighting is self-rule and the elimination of the organization of an Islamic state.

Parties to the conflict

  • Syrian President Bashar al-Assad: He enjoys the support of Russia and Iran and his loyalists, such as the Lebanese Hezbollah group.
  • United States: Opposition factions have received painful blows but are still fighting. Turkey and the Gulf States have provided some support to various armed factions, the largest being the Army of Islam and the Chamorro.
  • Kurds: In northern Syria, they control large areas allied with the United States
  • Turkey: fighting Kurdish forces
  • Israel: to launch raids on southern Syria
  • Organization of the Islamic state: which took a moment of time on large areas in Iraq and Syria before being subjected to painful blows and defeats in a row limited his abilities.

The motives of parties to the conflict

One of the reasons for the chaos in Syria is that it has become a battlefield of proxy for international forces. Why did these forces intervene?

  • Russia: Assad is Moscow’s close ally in the Middle East and if it falls, Russia will lose its foothold in the region and Tartous will lose its only port on the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Iran: Assad is an old ally, as well as confronting the influence of its Saudi rival as well as expanding its influence in the region.
  • United States: supported some of the opposition factions, especially the Syrian Democratic forces, which armed and trained and composed of these forces of Kurdish militants and the most prominent factions of the units to protect the Kurdish people.
  • Turkey: Its main role was to provide a safe haven for millions of displaced people and support an armed faction known as the Free Syrian Army. Turkey fears that Kurdish self-rule in northern Syria could strengthen separatism for Turkey’s Kurds, so it launched a war against Kurdish units that it calls “terrorist”. Turkey, a NATO member, has been working closely with Russia
  • Israel: Israel is most concerned about the arrival of sophisticated and sophisticated weapons for Hezbollah, so the Israeli Air Force launches occasional raids against sites in Syria that Israel says are Hezbollah elements.