INDIA (OBSERVATORY) – Rakibul Shaikh of the Tata Institute for Basic Research in India proposed a way to distinguish the mouths of wormholes from black holes. The preprint of the scientific article with theoretical calculations of physics is published on the website arXiv.org.
A molehill (it’s a molehill and a wormhole) is a hypothetical object that at every moment is a “straight tunnel” between certain areas of space. Imagine a crumpled sheet of paper. You can travel without leaving its surface. Then, to get from point A to point B, you have to conscientiously overcome all of its bends. And you can “pierce” the surface and get to the desired point on the other side straight. Here is a possibility and provides a wormhole (though not to spacecraft, and at best to photons).
Mole Holes have long excited the imagination of physicists, because it is a way to look in the field of space, inaccessible to direct observation because of the very small speed of light in the scales of space. In addition, according to some theories, wormholes connect different universes in the Multiverse . So, potentially you can look into another universe.
The presence of wormholes does not contradict the general theory of relativity of Einstein – the most profound and best tested to date theory of space-time. True, to maintain krotovina exotic forms of matter are needed, in the existence of which physicists are not yet sure.
Wherever theorists do not have enough knowledge, observation can help. The difficulty is that for an astronomer to “enter” into a molehill (the throat, as experts say) should look almost the same as a black hole.
As is known, black holes are not observed directly, for that they are black holes. They are detected due to the glow of the substance falling on them, to the parameters of the orbits of the satellite bodies, and more recently to the gravitational waves . However, until now, astronomers did not know how to distinguish a black hole from a wormhole.
Sheikh offers such a method. It is based on a special structure, which is formed due to the impact of gravity of the black hole on the surrounding photons. This is a characteristic dark area on a bright background, the so-called shadow. The source of the “backlighting” needed to create a shadow can be both a disk of matter falling into a black hole (an accretion disk, as experts say), and other celestial bodies.
The physicist considered a certain class of wormholes, the so-called worm holes of Theo. He theoretically studied the dependence of the form of the shadow of the neck on the speed of its rotation around its axis. Then the author compared the results with the behavior of the most popular model of a rotating black hole, known as the black Kerr hole.
As clarifies the publication ScienceAlert, it turned out that with slow rotation, the wormhole’s neck can not be distinguished from a black hole. However, if the object rotates faster, the shape of the shadow allows you to tell whether the black hole is in front of us or still the throat of a wormhole. It is important that such speeds are not prohibitively high and may well be observed in reality.
“The results obtained here show that wormholes that are considered in this paper and have a reasonable speed of rotation [around their axis], thanks to the observations of their shadows can be distinguished from black holes,” Sheikh writes in an annotation to his article.
The difficulty is that to date, no shadows have been observed either from the black holes or from the mouths of wormholes. The reason is that this requires a very high resolution (the ability to distinguish small details). However, the system of radio telescopes EHT , designed to directly “see” the horizon of black hole events , presumably possesses the necessary parameters and has already conducted the first observations. So, perhaps, very soon we will find out whether there are wormholes.